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12 Volt water pump is a dc electric water pump motor that powered by a 12V direct current power supply. It use centrifugal force that generated by high speed rotated impeller to booster, transfer, lift or circulate liquids like water, oil, coolant for sprayers, car, fountain, shower, garden etc.
As a small water pump, 12V water pump is low in price, small in size, long working lifespan, so its very popular with the market and users. Thus, 12 volt pump widely used as an automotive electric water pump , submersible water pump, booster water pump or circulation water pump for car cooling system, aquarium, fish tank, agriculture, tabletop fountain, garden solar fountain, PC cooling system, hot water heater, car washing, etc.
(VOVYO has strong 12v water pump R&D capabilities. Unique 12VDC Water Pumps in the world: 1. 500W Single motor pump Max head: 50m, Max flow: 6000L/hour. 2. 120W Single motor pump Max head:32m, Max flow: 1500L/hour. We can OEM, ODM any performance 12 Volt water pumps for you according to your special needs.)
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Table of Contents
VOVYO Technology Co., Ltd. is a 12V water pump manufacturer & supplier located in Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China. We specialize in the research and development, production and manufacturing of 12V water pumps, DC water pumps and their solutions. Our main products include automotive electric water pump, submersible water pump, solar water pump, fountain Water pump, circulating water pump, food grade water pump, computer water cooling water pump, booster pump and related supporting products.
The company has a full set of 12V, 24V, 48V micro water pump research and development, production, and testing technologies and processes with independent intellectual property rights. It has perfect performance, environment, reliability testing environment and equipment, and can provide customized product development services according to user needs.
Our products are widely used in automobiles, instrumentation, aquariums, fish tanks, beauty equipment, medical care, automatic control, solar irrigation, water treatment, household appliances, fountains, residential water pipeline pressurization, water heaters and many other fields.
VOVYO follows strict quality standards and manufacturing conditions, and all products are pre-aging and factory-tested before shipment. Helping customers succeed with reliable product quality and professional service is our aim.
12V water pump is powered by dc power supply. People fill its pump chamber with water to remove the air in the water inlet pipe, before the pump motor starts. After the motor is starting, the impeller of the water pump starts to rotate with the rotor under the action of the electromagnetic force generated by the motor, and the water between the blades also moves with the blades. Due to the centrifugal force, water is thrown out from the center by the impeller, and the water gains kinetic energy, leaving the outer edge of the impeller at a higher speed and entering the volute pump casing. In the volute, water is decelerated due to the bending and lengthening of the flow channel, converting kinetic energy into pressure energy, and flowing into the drainage pipe at a higher pressure. The impeller runs continuously under the drive of the motor.
Due to the negative pressure in the pump, under the atmospheric pressure of the horizontal plane, the water is continuously inhaled, and then continuously discharged through the work of the impeller. This is the work of the 12 Volt water pump principle.
12V DC water pump is powered by a DC 12V power supply, which can be transformed with a switching DC stabilized power supply, or can be connected to a car battery, which is quite convenient to use. For this kind of water pump, DC power is a safe voltage, which is safer to use than AC water pumps.
Compares with 12 Volt AC water pumps, 12 volt small DC water pumps are safer, compact and portable. Different from large pumps (such as some impeller type, centrifugal type, etc.) that must be guided with water before each use, the 12V volt pump has an important function: “self-priming”, which means that before each pumping, without adding additional water. In the case of water diversion, the water pump can automatically suck up the water, especially in the case of corrosive or inconvenient manual water diversion, the self-priming function is very convenient, and it is more and more popular among users.
There are many types of 12V water pump in the market, also many classification methods. Here, introduce 12 volt water pump in the form of drive motor.
When the 12V brushed DC water pump works, the coil and commutator of the motor rotate but the carbon brush does not rotate. The alternating change of the current direction is realized by the commutator and the brush, but the rotation of the motor will wear the carbon brush. When the motor works for a long time, the wear clearance of the carbon brushes will become larger, and the working noise will also increase. In this way, the carbon brushes commutated after the continuous motor works for hundreds of hours will not be able to play the role of commutation, and the working life of the water pump will also be reduced. Therefore, the working life of this type of water pump is very short, but its price is low, and it is widely used in applications that do not require high service life.
The 12v brushless motor DC water pump is composed of a brushless DC motor and an impeller. The shaft of the motor is connected with the impeller, and there is a gap between the stator of the motor and the rotor of the motor, so, water may penetrate into the motor after a long time of use which increases the possibility of the motor burning out. However, the cost of this kind of water pump is relatively low and the efficiency is high.
12V brushless DC water pump adopts electronic components for commutation, and does not need to use carbon brushes for commutation, so the life of the brushless DC water pump is greatly enhanced. The stator part and rotor part of this kind of water pump are completely isolated, and the stator and circuit board parts are potted with epoxy resin, which is 100% waterproof, and has the characteristics of low working noise, small size, long life, good shock resistance, high efficiency and stable performance. Also can adjust various required parameters through the winding of the stator, and can operate at a wide voltage.
There is little difference in principle and function between 12V DC water pump and 12V AC water pump.
The difference between the two lies in the motor: the former is a DC motor and the latter is an AC motor. The working principle and function of the water pump are basically the same. At present, there are mostly 12V DC water pumps on the market, and 12V AC water pumps are rarely seen in the market.
12V DC water pump is a miniature water pump powered by 12V DC power supply. refers to a mini water pump with one inlet and one outlet and can continuously form vacuum or negative pressure at the inlet, and a large output pressure is formed at the outlet. The working medium is water or liquid, is a small volume machinery. 12v DC current is a safe voltage, which is safer to use than AC water pumps.
12 Volt DC water pump is mainly used in water treatment, environmental protection, medical treatment, industrial control, scientific research laboratory, etc. It needs to meet the needs of small size, low noise, low power consumption, etc. It can be widely used in water circulation, cooling, lifting, transfer, pressurization, Spraying, spraying, water circulation, conveying and other purposes.
The differences between 12v water pump and 24v water pump are:
1. The voltage is different, one 12v and one 24v, the voltage is very safe.
2. Compared with the 12v dc water pump, the 24v water pump has a higher lift, a larger flow rate, and a relatively louder noise.
As we all know 12 volt water pump is built by a small dc motor or brushless dc motor. So it has mainly advantages such as portable, small in size, high in efficiency, low in price, low working noise, long working lifespan and high reliability, etc. Here, let’s go into detail as below:
12v dc water pump has advantages of low repair rate (even zero), small size, high efficiency, low consumption, no pollution, environmental protection, high safety, water proof, static proof, radiation proof, being filled with weak acid, weak alkali, clean water, edible oil, oil, diesel fuel and gasoline.
The axes of our water pump are made of high quality materials with high precision. The noise of pump work is not more than 35dB, even less than 23dB for low power quiet water pump.
12 volt dc brushless pump can sustain heavy duty work for a day with continuous operation. And its expected life span is at least 30000 hours.
12V brushless water pump that made with PPE, PPS material can be applied to indoor and outdoor under temperature 100℃.It is very greatly effective to prevent pump from leak resulting from long time water working by stator and PCB in motor tight encapsulated by peroxide and fully isolating from rotor. It is available for pump to be fixed in water, for the pump water proof. The maximum working liquid temperature is up to 180℃.
Multiple parameters are available at one voltage, for example, pump is made well in voltage 12VDC with head lift 1 meter or with head lift 15 meters is available too.
12v DC water pumps can work well with virtual voltage less than voltage rating. Multiple function design: it can be submersible and be not submersible.
Low volatge water pump is possible to design model and make it according to customer’s requirements. In order to meet your particular needs.
12V Three-phase water pump has many advantages, such as: Adjustment of flow rare and head lift of three-phase musical fountain water pump is accomplished by actuating program of tri-phase in pump making Gang-schaltung of PWM, Gang-schaltung of signal input imitation, Gang-schaltung of potentiometer. The tri-phase dc water pump is still protected when blocked and reverse connection.
As a new product, 12 volt water pump has the advantages of small size, high efficiency, low power consumption, long service life, no maintenance and no pollution, and has been widely used in various industry and machines.
12V submersible water pump is a water-lifting machine that works submerged in the water. It has the advantages of simple structure, convenient maintenance and management, high reliability and convenient automatic control. It is widely used in aquarium, fish tanks, outdoor fountains, tabletop fountains, farmland irrigation, deep wells, ships bilge, water wall etc.
12V electric water pump for car is a electric coolant pump that are widely used for automotive parking heater , preheater, heating air circulation, electric vehicle engine cooling system, hybrid vehicle motor cooling system, pure electric vehicle battery circulation refrigeration, motorcycle etc.
12V solar water pump use solar panel to directly drive the water pump, the solar water pump has three advantages:
(1) Energy saving, 35% energy saving than ordinary DC water pumps
(2) Soft start function, the power can be started normally when the power reaches 1W, and the performance can be automatically adjusted according to the size of the photovoltaic panel.
(3) Various protection functions can be easily set, such as overvoltage protection, overcurrent protection, anhydrous protection, temperature protection, etc.
12V food grade water pump‘s components that contact with liquid when working are made by food grade material such as PPE, Stainless steel etc. food grade water pump can work with 100C degree for long term working. We can widely use it for Dishwasher, coffee maker , water dispense, water purifier, juicer etc.
12V plumbing mattress water pump is a quiet water pump that has very lower working noise, some of their working noise is even low to 23dB. They are widely use for plumbing Mattress, car seat etc.
12V PC water cooling pump is usually refers to a electric water pump that use impeller centrifugal force to circulate water and cool the CPU. Computer water pump usually with low working noise and enough working water pressure.
12V water heater pump is a dc water pump that can work with high working water temperature to boost water for water heater. People divide it in to Electric water heater water pump, solar water heater water pump, air source water heater pump etc.
As the name implies 12V water booster pump is a 12v dc pump that used to pressurize water pipelines. We can widely use them for water heater pressurization, low water pressure in high-rise buildings, saunas, bathing, etc.
At present, there are many types of 12v water pumps in the market with different models. How to choose a water pump that is more suitable for your application or machines, you may not clear. Below is some experience on how to choose a 12 volt water pump for your reference.
First of all, users can choose 12v water pump or 24V water pump, or 48V voltage water pump according to their own application requirements. Here, VOVYO recommend you to choose a dc water pump with a smaller volume, if your application system or application product require not large water flow, not high water head, and the installation size of the water pump is limited. If the installation size of the water pump is limited and the system needs to obtain a larger flow, we recommend you to choose a 24V water pump or a 48V water pump to get a more higher water head and water flow.
VOVYO recommend you to choose a 12V diaphragm pump, if your application system needs to obtain ultra-high head, small flow, such as washing cars application. If your requirement on the head is not so high, but the flow is large, we recommend you to choose a 12V centrifugal pump. For applications that need to be submerged, such as fountains, aquariums and wells, we recommend you to choose a 12v submersible water pump.
If your application does not require a long service life of the pump, there is no requirement for the noise level of the pump, and the budget of the pump is limited and you pursue economy, We recommend you to choose an AC water pump or a 12 Volt brushed water pump. On the contrary, you should choose a brushless DC water pump with a long working life, higher working efficiency and lower comprehensive use cost.
If you use a 12V water pump to work with liquid that has a certain strong pH value, it is necessary to choose a water pump made of materials with better acid and alkali resistance. For example, choose a pump made of PPS with strong acid and alkali resistance instead of choosing a water pump made of PPE and PPA material with less acid and alkali resistance. For working liquid is drinking water or juice, beverage, food liquid, it is necessary to choose a water pump made of food-grade materials such as PPE, stainless steel, etc.
When choosing a 12 Volt water pump, its water head should be 1.15~1.20 times of the actual lift you need. If you need pump liquid to reach a vertical height of 10 meters, you need to choose a pump with a lift of about 11.5~12 meters.
Another, you need to calculate the performance of the working point that you need to obtain in advance before choosing a pump. Suggest you choose a 12V water pump according to the performance of the working point rather than the maximum flow and the maximum lift. For example, you need to choose a pump not with a maximum lift of 10 meters and a maximum flow of 5L/min, but a pump with a working point performance of 5L/min 12 Volt pump for @10m, if your system needs to pump liquid to a height of 10 meters and obtain a flow of 5L/min at the same time. Otherwise, pump will is unable to meet the performance requirements of your application.
You should choose a 12V water pump that has appropriate size, If your application system has requirements on the length and height of the pump. If you choose a water pump to use on a water heater or a threaded water pipe, you should choose a pump with thread inlet and outlet, such as a pump with 1/2 inch or 3/4 inch thread inlet and outlet. In addition, the direction of the inlet and outlet of the pump and the size of the caliber should match the actual use of your application system.
Suggest you choose a 12V water pump with relatively low temperature resistance to save purchase costs, if your application system requires the working liquid and environment temperature of is not high. If the working liquid temperature of your application system is high, or the ambient temperature is high, such as use the pump work for water heaters, automobile cooling circulation systems, etc. Then, it is necessary to choose PPS with a temperature resistance of 80~100 degrees or even more than 120 degrees, or a water pump made of aluminum alloy material. So as to ensure that the water pump will not deform due to the working liquid temperature and the ambient temperature being too high, thus making the water pump failure.
You should choose a pump with corresponding functions, if you need conduct time control, action control, pressure control, flow control, or speed regulation when operating a 12 Volt water pump.
As the 12v water pump is a DC water pump, you should buy a DC power supply instead of a transformer, and the current output from the transformer is still AC. Originally, for a 12V 180W pump, you can buy a 12V voltage 20A current DC power supply, but now there are too many false labels on the Internet, saying that 20A but is generally unattainable this current. So you’d better buy a 12V 30A DC power supply. By choosing a large dc power supply, it will never burn the water pump, but only be more safer. You can use it even if you buy a 12V 50A one. If the power is too small, it will not be able to start the pump . A large starting current is required at the moment of starting, when the motor starts. Such a large load will cause the over-current protection circuit of some switching power supplies to operate, and the motor cannot start normally. In order to prevent such a problem from happening, it is necessary to choose a switching power supply that can cope with the starting current of the motor, which usually requires twice the rated current, that is to say, you need a switching power supply of about 240W.
DC or AC water pump, If it is ac water pump, you can directly buy an AC 220v to AC 12V transformer. If it is a 12V dc water pump, we recommend you to buy a 12v batteries and charge them first. Connect the batteries in series to supply power, or see if there is an AC 220V to dc 12v transformer. It is also the easiest to find the later, which is similar to a charger. There is also a trick. The voltage of the car cigarette lighter seems to be dc 12v in some cars. You can also try it.
Pumps often fail due to improper selection and use. Therefore, how to correctly use the 12 volt water pump can not only effectively avoid the occurrence of failures, prolong the service life of the water pump, but also play the due role of the water pump in practical applications. So, how to correctly use the electric water pump, you can find the answer below:
Before we choosing a 12v water pump, we should consider the max water flow and max water head or working point performance that we need. The water head that general required by the user is best to be equal to the lift on the nameplate of the pump. If it is not equal, the deviation cannot exceed 20%; The selection of the pump flow rate should be adapted to the inflow and water consumption of the water source. Only in this way can the use be economical and the efficiency can reach the highest.
Minimize the idling time of the 12 volt water pump, otherwise it will damage the rotor and shaft by dry friction for too long operating in this condition.
Before installing the 12v water pump, it should measure the insulation resistance with a 500 V megohmmeter. If the insulation resistance is lower than 5 megohms at room temperature, you should dry the pump before put into use. The installation position of the 12V submersible pump should be correct. The submersible depth of the oil-filled submersible pump should be between 0.35 to 3.0 m. And the maximum depth should not exceed 10 m; For dry, semi-dry and water-filled submersible water pumps, the submersible depth should be 1 m, since if submerge the pump too deep the it will affect the mechanical seal. As dc pump is a centrifugal pump and cannot automatically discharge air, we should submerge install it below the liquid level or fill the pump cavity with water before starting the pump when using it.
You should not idly operate the 12 Volt water pump as much as possible. Because there is no medium lubrication during idling, it is easy to wear and tear, and it is more likely to burn out the pump motor due to the accumulation of heat in the motor winding.
You should operate the 12V water pump under its rated voltage. You should tell the pump manufacturer in advance if you have over voltage use or other functional requirements. So as to customize the wide voltage operation function, otherwise long-term over voltage operate the pump will easily burn out it.
For 12V water pumps, the direction of rotation of the pump motor should be found out. Because there are many types of 12 volt water pumps that can pump water during forward and reverse rotation. But the water output is small and the current is large during reverse rotation, and the long reverse rotation time will damage the motor windings. You should stop the pump immediately, if the impeller is reversed after the pump is turned on. And the positive and negative wires of the power supply should be exchanged to make it run normally.
The starting current of the 12v electric water pump can reach several times of its rated current. The heat in the motor will accumulate and the temperature will rise, if you start it frequently, which will affect the insulation performance of the winding, shorten the service life of the motor, and even burn the winding. In addition, the 12 volt water pump will generate back water flow when it stops. If you turn on it immediately after shutdown, the motor load will start, resulting in excessive starting current and burning out the windings. Therefore, it must wait for the water in the pipe to return before starting. Generally, if you need to be start the water pump after it is stopped, it should be more than 3 minutes apart to cool the motor. At the same time, you should pay special attention to: you should not dehydrate operate the water pump as much as possible. It should not exceed 5 minutes, if you operate the pump under anhydrous conditions, otherwise, the it will the burn the motor due to overheating.
The temperature rise of the 12v water pump motor will be too high, if the working voltage is too high or too low. And it will short the service life or even burn the water pump. If the voltage is too high, the current of the pump will be too large and will burn out the windings. Therefore, we should stop the motor, if we find the the voltage is too high, and turn on for use the pump only after finding out the cause and eliminating the fault.
Please do not use the low-lift pump for high-lift operation, in order to avoid the long-term overload operation of the 12 Volt water pump. It is necessary to observe whether the current value is within the specified range of the pump at any time. We should stop the pump for inspection, if you find that the current is greater than 20% of the rated current of the pump.
12v water pump is one of the most common equipment in the water circulation system of household appliances. Whether it is selected and installed correctly will bring many influences to the production process. Because it is a very important part in the adjustment of process parameters. Therefore, based on years of practical experience in production, VOVYO will summarize several issues that are often overlooked, so that everyone can pay attention, so as to prevent similar phenomena from happening, and lay a good foundation for normal use. The main problems are as follows:
In daily work, many people think that the more lower the pumping head is , the more smaller the motor load is , after we choose a pump.
In their opinion choosing a high-lift 12 Volt water pump for low-lift pumping not only increases the flexibility of the operation, but also enables the equipment to operate at a light load. There is no harm in either the process or the equipment. Under the misdirection of this misunderstanding, when they choosing a water pump, they often choose a pump with very high working water head. In fact, for the 12v centrifugal water pump, the power consumption is proportional to the actual flow of the pump, and the flow of the pump will decrease with the increase of the lift, so the higher the lift, the smaller the flow, and the less power consumed smaller. Conversely, the lower the lift, the greater the flow and the greater the power consumption. Therefore, when we use the high-lift pump for pumping water with a low-lift, it will be easily overload the motor and generates heat, and it may also burn the motor in severe cases.
Therefore, in order to prevent the 12V water pump motor from overloading, it is generally required that the actual pumping head of the pump should not be lower than 60% of the nominal head. If we use it in an emergency, you should install a gate valve on the water outlet pipe of the pump for adjusting the water output (or block the small water outlet with wood, etc.), so as to reduce the flow and prevent the motor from overloading. When operating, you should pay attention to check the temperature rise of the pump motor, and should turn slow the outlet water flow or turn off the pump in time, if we find that the motor is overheated.
Some people usually think that pumping water from a large-diameter pump to a small-diameter pipe can increase the water head of the 12V water pump.
In fact, the actual working water head of the 12v water pump = total head – loss head. When the model of the pump is determined, the total head is fixed, and the lost head comes from the resistance of the pipeline. The smaller the diameter of the pipe, the greater the resistance. Therefore, when the large-diameter pump pumps water to the small-diameter water pipe, the actual head will not increase, but will decrease. This results in a drop in pump efficiency. Similarly, when a small-diameter pump pumps water to a large-diameter water pipe, it will not reduce the actual head of the pump, but will reduce the loss of head due to the reduction of the resistance of the pipeline, which will increase the actual water head of the 12V dc pump.
Some people also think that when we use small-diameter 12v water pump for pumping water from a large-diameter water pipe, it will greatly increase the motor load. In their opinion, it will increase the pressure of the water in the outlet pipe on the pump impeller, after we increase the pipe diameter, and which will greatly increase the motor load. In fact, the size of the liquid pressure is only related to the height of the water head, and has nothing to do with the cross-sectional area of the water pipe. As long as the lift is constant, the size of the impeller of the pump will remains the same, and no matter how large the pipe diameter is, the pressure acting on the impeller is constant. Only after the diameter of the pipe increases, the water flow resistance will decrease, and the flow rate will increase. Then the power consumption will also increase appropriately. But as long as it is within the rated lift range, no matter how the diameter of the pipe increases, the pump can work normally. It can also reduce the loss of the pipeline and improve the efficiency of the pump.
Therefore, when you choosing a 12 volt water pump and piping that match it, the diameter of the piping should not be smaller than the diameter of the dc pump, when the model of the water pump is determined.
When installing a 12V water pump, if you place water inlet pipe horizontally or upturn, it is easy to cause air to accumulate in the water inlet pipe of the pump, which will reduce the vacuum degree of the pump, reduce the water suction head of the pump, and reduce the water output. The correct way is: when you configure the water inlet pipe for the 12 volt dc water pump, you should slightly raise the horizontal section towards the water source, and should not be water level, and do not raise the water inlet pipe at the pump end . That is to say, the height of the pump inlet line should be inclined towards the pump end (slightly lower by the pump end).
It will increase the local water flow resistance, if there are many elbows used on the water inlet pipeline of the 12 Volt water pump. This will increase the pump’s energy consumption. In addition, you should turn the pipe installation elbow in the vertical direction, not in the horizontal direction, so as to avoid the accumulation of air.
If you directly connect the elbow of the water inlet pipeline to the inlet of the 12V water pump, the water flow will be unevenly distributed when entering the impeller through the elbow, resulting in uneven force on the impeller. Therefore, when you connect the inlet of the pump to the elbow of the water pipeline, you should add a short section of straight pipe between them and the length of the straight pipe should not be less than 2 to 3 times the diameter of the water pipeline.
Due to the frequent and long term use of 12 Volt water pumps, some failures may occur during operation. Therefore, the operator should master the diagnosis and maintenance methods of common faults of the pump, and eliminate the fault in time to avoid economic losses due to the failure of the water pump to work normally.
Reasons: you do not fill the water pump chamber with water or the water is not enough; The suction pipe is leaking or the connection of the pump head is leaking; the speed is too low, and the mechanical seal leaks too much.
Exclusion and maintenance methods: Add water to the pump chamber, eliminate air leakage, check the suction pipe and connecting flange, increase the voltage to increase the speed, and replace the mechanical seal.
Reasons: due to improper use of the water pump, the impeller flow channel or suction pipe is blocked; The impeller is severely worn; The power is insufficient and the speed is too low.
Elimination and maintenance methods: remove the blockage, replace the impeller, and adjust to the rated speed.
Reason: The installation support feet of the 12 Volt water pump are unstable or the water pump bearing is seriously worn, the rotor dynamic balance is not good, and the bearing is eccentric.
Exclude maintenance methods: adjust the support feet, replace the bearings, and adjust the coaxiality.
Reason: the nut connecting the pump head and the pump body is loose or the sealing ring is damaged, lead to damage to the mechanical seal.
Exclude maintenance method: tighten the nut, replace the mechanical seal.
Reason: the packing is too tight or the impeller and the 12v pump body are stuck by debris; The pump shaft, bearing, are stuck by the debris; The pump shaft is seriously bent.
Exclusion and maintenance methods: disassemble the DC water pump body to remove debris or rust; correct the pump shaft or replace it with a new one.
Reason: water pump inlet or pipeline is blocked; The pump shaft is loose; The water level of the water inlet drops; the water inlet hose is sucked.
Elimination and maintenance measures: clean up the foreign matter that caused the blockage; Dredge the groove of the water diversion pipe; Reinforce the impeller; Appropriately lower the installation position of the 12V pump, or start it after the water level rises equipment.
Reasons: The rotating speed of the power machine is too low, resulting in the rotating speed of the pump being too low; The pump head is insufficient; The pipeline and the impeller are partially blocked or the impeller is damaged; The water leakage of the water outlet pipe is not serious.
Exclusion and maintenance methods: Restore the rated speed; Seal the leaking part of the water pump, and press the packing; Remove the blockage and replace the impeller; Replace the leakage reducing ring and block the leaking place.
Reason: The filter screen or bell mouth is gradually blocked by debris, and the water level of the inlet water is lowered.
Exclusion and maintenance method: Remove sundries and increase the depth of the 12v water pump inlet.