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DC water pump is a small electric water pump motor that powered by a 24v, 12v, 5v, 6v, or 3v direct current power supply, solar panel or battery. It use centrifugal force to pressurize, trsanfer or circulating water or other liquids.
Compared with AC water pumps driven by 120v, 220v, 240v, 380v AC motors, DC water pump has advantages of low price, safety, high efficiency, low noise, portable, etc. As a low voltage electric water pump, DC water pumps are widely for applications that requires safety, quiet, low power consumption. Such as applications for: home appliance, vehicle, pool, well, pet water fountain, Aquarium, fish tank, dc fountain, water heater, water circulation system, automotive heat management system, etc.
(VOVYO has strong DC Water Pump R&D capabilities. Unique dc pumps in the world: 1. 550W Single motor dc pump Max head: 50m, Max flow: 6000L/hour. 2. 120W dc powered water pump Max head:32m, Max flow: 1500L/hour. We can OEM, ODM, Customzie any performance dc water pumps for you according to your special needs.)
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Table of Contents
VOVYO Technology Co., Ltd is a DC water pump manufacturer in China which located in Dongguan city. VOVYO specialized in R&D and producing small circulation water pump, automotive electric water pump, food grade water pump, quiet water pump, booster water pump, water heater pump, etc. During the past more than 10 years, VOVYO has developed 9 series pump from VP25 to VP90. All of them are built by a 12v , 24v, 5v, or 6v bldc motor. Mainly used for application like small water circulation system, cat water fountain, irrigation, electric water heaters, water booster system, coffee machine, auto engine cooling, motor controller cooling, automotive heat management system etc.
VOVYO brand dc pumps are popular in the world. We export pumps to global countries such as United States, India, Japan, England, Germany, Australia, Canada, Italy, South Korea, Brazil, France, South Africa, etc.
Common mini water pumps include Brushed DC pump, Brushless motor DC pump, Brushless DC pump, etc. What are their working principles? The following is a detailed explanation：
Brushed DC water pump is driven by a brushed motor. The alternating change of current direction of its coil is realized by the commutator and brushes that rotate along with the dc motor. As long as the motor rotates, the carbon brushes will wear out. When the pump runs to a certain time, the carbon brush wear gap becomes larger, and the sound will increase accordingly. After hundreds of hours of continuous operation, the carbon brush can no longer play a role in commutation. So, a brushed DC pump with short lifespan, high noise, electromagnetic interference, poor air-tightness, and cannot be submersible used, but its price is low.
Brushless motor DC water pump is a pump use its dc motor to drive its impeller that connect the motor shaft to work. There is a gap between the stator and the rotor of the water pump. If you use it for a long time, water will penetrate into the motor and increase the possibility of motor burnout. It suitable for mass production, and with relatively low production cost.
Brushless dc pump uses hall component, single-chip electronic components or software programs to control the commutation of current. Compares with the brushed motor it abandons the carbon brush commutation, thus avoids the short life of the motor due to the wear of the carbon brush, and greatly extends lifespan. Also its stator part and the rotor part of the magnetically isolated, therefore pump are completely isolated. Due to the stator and the circuit board are potted with epoxy resin, the pump 100% waterproof.
Since its rotor part is made of permanent magnet, and the water pump body is made of environmentally friendly materials, its performance is stability. You can adjust its parameters through changing winding of the stator, and operate it at a wide voltage. Brushless DC pump has the characteristics of submersible working, long working lifespan, high efficiency, low noise, and small size.
With the vigorous development of household appliances and instrumentation industries, small size, oil-free and environmentally friendly DC pumps have become more and more widely used. Most of the mini water pumps are DC powered. That is, the pump is driven by the dc motor (The motor and the pump cavity are integrated, and the pump is powered by DC power supply). So you can also call them DC miniature water pumps.
There are many types of DC pumps, here introduce you the DC pumps based on different voltage of rated DC voltage that drives the motor.
12V DC water pump refers to an electric water pump built by a 12V dc motor. It can be used for voltage transformation with a switching DC stabilized power supply, or it can be connected to a car battery, which is very convenient to use. People widely use them in different applications such as water treatment, environmental protection, medical treatment, industrial control, scientific research laboratories,water circulation, cooling, lifting, transfer, pressurization, spraying, spraying, water circulation, transportation and other purposes.
24V DC water pump is a small water pump powered by a 24V DC power supply. It can be divided into 24V brush water pump and 24V brushless DC pump according to the driving mode. They are widely used in household appliances, automobiles, handicrafts, solar energy, household goods, electrical appliances, food industries, and so on.
5V DC water pump is a miniature water pump use 5V DC power supply, battery, solar panel, or USB power supply to power it. Mainly used in different applications such as fish tanks, cat water fountain, desktop fountains and so on.
6V DC water pump is a micro water pump powered by a 6V DC power supply. It is mainly used in applications that need to meet the requirements of small size, low noise, and low power consumption.
DC water pump is a electric water pump driven by a DC motor. AC water pump is driven by an AC motor. Why do people more prefer to use DC pumps powered by 12v, 24v, 5v, 6v instead of ac water pump powered by 120v, 220v, 240v, and 380v in many applications? If you don’t know the advantages of the dc pump when compared with ac water pump which lead to people more prefer dc electric water pump, you can find the answer from the following content:
There are 4 Major Disadvantages of AC Water Pump
As we all known, the safety voltage of the human body is 36V. However, the AC pump uses AC power supply above 120V, moreover, its insulation requirements are very high. Therefore, once the wire is damaged, an electric shock safety accident will happens very likely. Also, if AC water pump is used in a fish tank, there is no guarantee for the safety of the fish once the electricity leaks.
AC pump motors generally use copper-clad Lv wire cores. The working temperature of the motor is generally around or more than 120 degrees lead to its service life is not long enough. Under the condition of achieving the same parameter performance, its energy consumption is much higher than that of the DC water pump.
The motor technology used in AC water pump is outdated and materials used are also cheap. So, working noise of ordinary AC pumps is generally above 40db. With the increase of working time, its working noise getting louder and louder.
The quality of AC water pumps on the market is uneven, and pump’s parameters are generally false in the process of using.
Advantages of DC Water Pump When Comparing With AC Water Pump
The safety voltage of the human body is below 36V, and the voltage by used for DC water pump is between 5V and 24V, which greatly improves the safety of the pump and avoids safety accidents such as electric shock caused by the damage of pump wire . For areas with unstable electricity or voltage, because of the configuration of the power adapter ( Transformer) makes it provides stable voltage. It can ensure the continuous and stable operation of the water pump, also can still use the corresponding battery power supply to make the pump continue to work in the event of a power failure.
The material used in the DC pump is a pure copper motor, using advanced brushless DC technology and the latest process design. Therefore, dc pump with a very long working lifespan, some brushless dc pumps can even more than 30,000 hours. Also, its motor working temperature is very low, and the long-term operating temperature does not change much.
DC pump uses a unique shock and noise reduction design, and is fixed by a flexible suction cup. That not only make its pump body is stable, but also its working noise can be effectively reduced, maximum working sound noise does not exceed 40dB.
Compares with ac water pump, dc electric water pump with low power consumption, high performance. All parameters and performance are actual nominal, different models meet different needs, low power consumption ,and surging power.
There are various kinds of DC pumps in the market, but not every pump can meet your application requirements. This is because different pumps have different working voltages, dimensions, inlet and outlet forms and directions, different working performance, working environment conditions, and so on.
So when you choose a DC pump for your application, you should take the following aspects into consideration, so that you can choose the most suitable and most cost-effective dc small water pump for your application.
There are 3v, 5v, 6v, 12v, 24v, 48v different rated voltage specifications DC pumps on the market. The more lower the rated voltage is, the more smaller the corresponding pump performance is. If you want to buy a pet water pump or a desktop fountain water pump, we recommend you choose a water pump with a rated voltage of 3~6V. If you need to buy a water pump and it in coffee machines, drinking fountains, or food-grade water pumps, then we suggest you choose a 12v dc Water pump. We suggest you choose an 12V or 24V rated voltage electric water pump, if you use them in vehicles or a motorcycle.
The maximum head of the DC pump generally refers to the static head without water flow when pumping water to the maximum head. If you need to pump the water to a certain height and maintain a certain water flow, the required head must be above the specified pumping height. Generally speaking, it is necessary to enlarge the water head around 5%~10% of the margin to select the model.
Flow rate is one of the important performance data for selecting a water pump, it is directly related to the pumping performance of the entire pump application system. Therefore, when you choose a DC pump, you should take the maximum flow rate as the basis and take into account the normal flow rate. When there is no maximum flow rate, you can usually take 1.1 times the normal flow rate as the maximum flow rate of the dc pump.
If the environment the dc water pump used requires diving, such as in aquariums and fish tanks, then you must choose a dc submersible pump that can be used as a submersible water pump. If the ambient temperature and working fluid temperature you need to use is very high, such as solar water heaters, car engine heat dissipation, electric vehicle battery heat dissipation and other high water temperature environments, you must choose small electric dc pumps can endure high temperature . For example, you should choose a pump with max 100 celsius degrees operating temperature for a solar water heater, and you should choose a electric water pump can endure max 180 celsius degrees working temperature for fuel cell cooling system of new energy vehicle.
When you choose a DC water pump for your appliances, equipment, or water circulation system, you should choose a water pump with a suitable external size. So that it can be installed in the space you design and left for the mini water pump. If the space left for pump is very compact, then we suggest you choose a brushless DC pump with higher efficiency and smaller volume instead of a brushed dc pump with the same working performance. The direction and shape of the pump inlet and outlet should also be suitable for your piping system direction and connector form. For example, the inlet and outlet directions of the water pump used on the water heater are generally inline and thread. In this case, you should choose a 24v, 12v inline water pump which with 1/2″ or 3/4″ thread inlet and outlet.
You may find that I don’t have a dc power supply, after you buying back a dc pump, but only have a ac supply at hand. And you also don’t want to spend money to buy a dc power supply. At this time, you will ask can I use a ac power supply to power the dc pump? This is a frequently asked question by many users not only you but many of our customers.
So, can a DC pump run on AC? The short answer is NO. Here, regarding this question, let me give you a detailed answer:
DC pump can’t run on AC this is because: Although you can connect a single-phase series-excited DC motor to AC power supply since it belongs to both AC and DC motors, and it can work with either AC or DC power. Unfortunately, the DC motor that use to build DC pump is not a single-phase series-excited DC motor, it can’t be connected to AC power supply. Therefore, the DC pump cannot power by AC power supply. You should use direct current to power a DC water pump. If you want to use ac to power the dc water pump, the best way that I suggest you is use a filter rectifier first to convert the ac into a stable direct current, then power the dc water pump. Otherwise, if you forcibly run a dc pump on ac, then the pump will be burnt and damaged.
Nowadays, there are many types of power supplies with different models that can be used for DC pumps on the market. How to choose the most suitable DC power supply for dc pump is not clear to many users. Below we will introduce how to choose a DC power supply:
When the rated voltage of the DC water pump you are using is 48V, 24V, 12V. You can purchase a DC power adapter or DC power supply to supply power to the pump. If you use a dc pump with 12V rated voltage, then you can choose an adapter or battery to supply power to the pump. If the rated voltage of the pump is as low as 9V, 6v, 5v, 3v, then you can choose a solar panel dry battery, a charger or even computer’s USB interface to power the battery powered water pump.
Regarding the DC power supply equipped for the DC pump, you should pay attention to below aspects. After you connect the small DC water pump to the power supply, the power supply voltage should be stable under any load and working conditions. It is better to match the water pump with a regulated switching DC power supply. The voltage may be very high when you do not connect the pump to it, if the power supply cannot be regulated. And the voltage will drop sharply once you connect the pump to the power supply.
Pump will not work, even if the voltage is equal to the rated working voltage after connecting the DC pump. Because, once the pipeline load changes during the working process of the pump. The pump’s demand for input electrical energy will also change. At this time, the power supply voltage will fluctuate greatly. which will lead to the pump’s work to be completely disordered.
It is also not advisable for you to divide and step down the voltage through resistance. Because the working current of the pump will change when the pipeline load changes. Which will cause the resistance partial voltage to be changed. Therefore, the power supply must have a voltage regulator function. In actual purchase, the price difference between the one with voltage stabilization function and the one without is very small. Here, we recommend you to buy the one with voltage stabilization function.
Common misunderstanding: Customer uses a lights using transformer to power the dc water pump. But it turns out that it can not drive the pump. (That’s because the lights using transformer is an AC transformer, it only converts 220 AC power into 12V or 24V AC power. It does not have the filtering and voltage stabilization functions like that of the DC switching power supply.)
You should purchase a DC power supply with output current larger than the working current of the water pump. So as to ensure the energy demand of the water pump can be met. Moreover, when you purchasing a power supply, please do not choose a switching power supply that is too cheap. This is because, in order to attract customers to purchase such power supplies, the seller usually false bids and false reports on the parameters.
If the DC power supply does not meet the above conditions, the following malfunctions may occur: 1. Pump cannot be started. 2. pump stops working due to the unmoved load during operation after starting. 3. Weak performance during work.
There are many kinds of dc power supply in the market, and with Uneven quality. So you should pay attention to below points When buying or equipping a DC Power Supply for DC Pump:
You should not use electrical control components (such as integrated blocks, etc.) to directly supply power to the dc pump. Since it will likely cause the problem of insufficient power supply.
If you use a switching power supply with a small rated output current to supply power to a mini high pressure DC water pump with a large rated current. You will find that pump will stop running immediately after starting. You may think that the pump is fault. But actually, it caused by the current that the switching power supply output to the pump is too small. Here, We suggest you replace the power supply with a larger rated output current to solve the problem.
When you use the power supplies at different prices that with same voltage and output power to supply power to the DC pump (same nominal current, voltage, power), and connect the pump directly without load. You may find a high-priced power supply can easily drive the pump to work normally. While the power light of a low-priced power supply will be dimmed. Then directly trigger the current protection function, then the pump will stop running after starting. Therefore, you need to distinguish whether the quality of the power supply what you are buying is reliable or not. And whether there are false parameters on the power supply nameplate or not.
You should note that the load current parameters given on the pump nameplate generally has not taken the starting inrush current into consideration. Therefore, when purchasing the power supply you must also consider the inrush current of the load. Equipping principle: Current provided by the power supply is preferably 1.5 times or more of the maximum load current of the pump.
The biggest feature of the DC water pump is small in size, light in weight, safety, reliability, and high efficiency. So it is very popular in the market. In order to ensure pump’s normal service life, maintain its stable performance, avoid accidents and losses during use. You should pay attention to the following aspects when using it:
You must use a DC power supply to supply power to DC electric water pump. You cannot use AC power to power it, otherwise the motor will be burned.
When you use the DC water pump, you must use it within its rated voltage. If you have over-voltage or other functional requirements, you should choose a pump with a higher rated voltage. Otherwise, it will burn out the pump if over voltage use the pump. For example, you cannot use a 24V power supply to drive a pump with a rated voltage of only 12V.
You should pay attention to the ambient temperature and working fluid temperature. Since, DC motors are divided into two-phase and three-phase motors. And the heat dissipation performance of two-phase motors is not very good. Generally, two-phase pump motor just can only be used in condition of working liquid with temperature below 60 degrees. Otherwise, the motor will be burned out once the working fluid temperature is higher than it.
We recommend you choose a dc pump driven by a three-phase motor. If you run the pump with environment temperature and liquid temperature exceeds 60 degrees temperature.
When using the DC pump, you should not switch the DC pump frequently. This is because the back-current will occur when the electric pump stops. If you turn on the electric pump immediately, the motor will start. Result in excessive starting current and burning of the windings. Due to the large current when starting, frequently starting will also burn out the windings of the pump motor.
As we all know, DC electric water pump is a centrifugal water pump, it cannot automatically discharge air. Therefore, when using a DC pump, you should submerge or install it below the liquid level. By doing so, we can ensure that there is liquid full of the pump chamber. Thus it will not cause the pump dry run and burn the motor.
When you use the DC pump, try not to use it idling. Since, there is no medium lubrication when idling, thus it is easy to wear the water pump shaft and bearings. More seriously , it will burn the water pump if it work in such condition too long.
Since DC water pumps are generally clean water pumps, it requires small size impurity particles in the water. When you use the pump, try to prevent hard particles from entering the it. Or do not use it in water with too large impurity particles. Otherwise it will be easy to accelerate the abrasion of the shaft. Severely it will cause the pump stall and even burn the motor.
Due to its low working voltage, safety and reliability, small size, light weight, and low price. DC pumps are loved by users all over the world. And widely used in industries such as industry, electrical appliances, aquariums, car cooling, fountains, etc. However, user may encounters failures of the water pump during the use of the DC pump. Then how to deal with the failure? Please see the detailed explanation below:
The dc water pump motor does not work and pump does not pump water when the micro dc pump is connected to the power supply and power on.
Reason are as below :
1. The power cord connector is not properly connected to the battery terminal or lead wire is in poor contact. Which causes the circuit to be powered off, making the motor unable to work.
2. The supporting switch DC stabilized power supply fails; 3. The battery or battery has insufficient power; 4. The motor poorly contact with the carbon brush lead to the pump can not be started. Or the pump impeller is rusty and unable to rotate after the pump is left unused for a long time. Cause the pump to fail to pump water.
Solution : Connect the connector of the power cord and the terminal of the battery and tighten it; Or clear the rust of the impeller, make the impeller run well, and restore the normal operation of the pump.
After you start the motor, water pump heats up and hums and does not pump water. It is necessary to stop the machine immediately. The reason is that the water in the pump chamber is not enough, lead the water pump to run idly. And lead the water pump unable to work normally. Solution: add enough water until the water level higher than the axis of the impeller. Also you should not fill the pump chamber be full of water.
DC water pump hums after its motor is started, and the water output is small and difficult. The reason is that the impeller is damaged or worn, or the suction pipe leaks. Solution: repair or replace the seal, replace a new impeller, and eliminate the pipeline leak.
During the working process of the water pump, it suddenly made muffled noise and the water flow is intermittent. The reason is that debris is entangle and block the filter device, makes the suction pipe difficult to absorb water. Or the impeller cannot work normally due to the blockage of debris in the pump. Solution: Remove the debris which block the filter and the floating objects around it to keep the suction pipe unobstructed. Or shut down the pump, remove its cover and debris in the pump, restore the normal operation of the impeller.
During the working process of the dc water pump, its motor suddenly stops automatically and stops pumping water. The reason is that the pump sucks in solid debris (such as hard sand) and jams the impeller. Causing the motor to stop and the pump to stop pumping. Or the battery is used for too long and is insufficient, causing the motor to stop and stop pumping. Remove the impurities in the pump, and restore the normal operation of the impeller, or fully charge the battery.
Dear customer, when you using a water pump, have you ever encountered that pump is burned out due to accidentally connecting the positive and negative poles of the water pump power supply? Or when you do not understand the use conditions of the water quality of the pump and use it in sewage containing large impurity particles, it will be blocked and lead to be burned out? You may also hope that you can obtain different flow rates in different working conditions or times according to your needs, and so on. So, how to avoid the fact that the pump works or is damaged due to misoperation without understanding the working conditions of the pump, and brings huge losses to you? VOVYO’s solution is to recommend you buy a dc water pump with advanced protection.
So, what kind of advanced functions does a dc water pump have? The advanced functions of the dc water pump mainly include reverse rolarity connection protection, locked-rotor protection, idling protection, over voltage protection,over temperature protection, and constant power Function, FG signal feedback function, speed adjust function, etc. Let’s give you a detailed introduction as below:
As we all know, reverse connection will cause a large current to break down the dc water pump controller and damage the water pump. So, to protect it, a water pump should have reverse connection protection function. That is, the circuit protection triggered when the positive pole of the input power supply of the dc water pump and the negative pole of the power supply are reversely connected, and stop the pump working.
Locked-rotor protection is a circuit protection triggered by the failure of the water pump during startup or operation due to excessive load or jamming of its own mechanical components and failure to remove the fault in time. It can avoid the pump to be burnt.
Idling protection is the circuit protection triggered by the dc water pump when the load is empty or when the load is too small.
Over voltage protection is the circuit protection triggered when the input voltage of the dc water pump is higher than the normal working voltage range of the water pump. Mainly through the detection of the input voltage of the water pump, the output of the controller will be turned of when it exceeds the set threshold, so as to protect the controller device and the motor.
Over temperature protection is a circuit protection triggered by the high temperature of the controller, due to the high ambient temperature and excessive power consumption of the electric water pump during startup or operation.
The speed regulation function of the DC water pump is mainly to adjust the pump rotor running speed. To realize this, there are two speed adjust way：1. Change the power of the water pump by adjusting the input voltage. 2. Use a power supply with a PWM adjustable duty cycle.
FG signal function is the feedback signal of the motor speed of the speed-regulated water pump.
When the speed-regulated pump is working, the speed information of the motor will be output from the FG signal wire in the form of pulses. That is, the FG wire will continuously output pulse signals. The control circuit receives this pulse after the signal, the speed of the motor can be calculated at this time. So as to know the operating status of the pump, such as the flow rate, whether the pump has failed to stop, etc. The control system can use these signals to control the pump, which can realize the intelligence of the system.
Function achieved by the constant power pump is to ensure that the motor will not overpower. And makes the pump with large flow when working at low pressure and small flow when working at high pressure; DC constant pressure pump can achieve zero flow and pressure.